A Contactless IoT-Based GPS-Tracked Waste Bin to Reduce Infections from Medical Waste in Ghana


  • John Kojo Annan University of Mines and Technology
  • Nice Enyonam Akpeke
  • Edward A. A. Kwesi
  • Hanson Appiah


Irregular checking of waste especially in some medical facilities of Ghana leads to overflow of waste. A study by World Health Organisation (WHO) in February 2018 indicates that 15% of the total waste collected from medical facilities may be infectious, toxic, or radioactive and may contribute to unintended release of chemical or biological hazards. Considering the present COVID-19 pandemic and other diseases like ebola and hantavirus, it is critical to properly manage waste collected from medical facilities. In this study, Internet of Things (IoT) is used to design a smart bin to help reduce user contact to waste. Using a flowchart, a schematic model of the system was developed using Proteus 8.11 software. Two HCSR04 ultrasonic sensors were used to measure the waste level in the bin and detect proximity of objects to the bin to trigger an MG996R servo motor for automatic operation of the lid of the waste bin having a monitoring system. A NEO-6M GPS module was used to determine the location of the waste bin and displayed on a 16x2 LCD. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was created for remote monitoring of waste over the internet. An ESP32 node MCU was programmed using Arduino software and used to interface the system with the GUI. The designed system was constructed and incorporated into a rectangular-shaped plastic bin. During testing, a hand wave at the sensor on the side of the container triggered opening of the bin. Sample waste placed in the bin were detected and real-time information regarding waste levels were sent to a self-designed HTML webpage called ‘Smart Bin’ with dynamic IP address. This system could be used in health facilities to prevent medical waste overflow, limit human contact to waste and avoid spread of infections.






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