Attenuation of Heavy Metals from Waste Oil-Based Drilling Mud using Locally Produced Coconut Shell-based Activated Carbon

  • Emefa Priscilla Amenyah Kove University of Mines and Technology
  • William K. Buah
  • Ohenewaa Kakra Dankwa
  • Emmanuel Atta Mends

Abstract

Most toxic heavy metals (HM) persist in oil-based mud and ecosystem for many decades after the application of mud for drilling oil and gas wells. This study assessed the attenuation of such heavy metals from waste oil-based mud using activated carbon produced locally. According to literature, oil-based mud analysed presented variable levels of available Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Calcium (Ca) and Manganese (Mn). Adsorption is a highly effective means of separation to remove a wide range of pollutants in waste streams. Coconut shell activated carbon (CS-AC) was locally produced to remove heavy metals from the waste oil-based mud to encourage value addition to waste. This study therefore assessed the suitability of CS-AC for use in removing heavy metals from the waste mud. CS-AC indicated good adsorption characteristics for Zn and Cr with HM loadings more than half of the initial concentration after 15 minutes with Zn having the faster adsorption rate. At an optimum dosage of 125 g/l, the derived activated carbon (CS-AC) has the potential for attenuation of heavy metals from waste oil-based mud at equilibrium time of 15 minutes for Zn, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Ca, and 60 minutes for (Iron) Fe. CS-AC is a viable and economical product for the removal of toxic heavy metals from waste oil-based mud before disposal.

Author Biographies

Emefa Priscilla Amenyah Kove, University of Mines and Technology

Emefa Priscilla Amenyah Kove is a Postgraduate Assistant, currently Doctoral Candidate in Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering from the University of Mines and Technology. She holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Mines and Technology. She is a Member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). Her research interests include Petroleum Waste Management, Economics of Petroleum Projects and Treatments of Petroleum Wastes.

William K. Buah

William Kwame Buah is currently a Professor at the University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana. He holds a PhD in Waste Processing Engineering from the University of Leeds, Leeds, UK and a Master of Science Degree in Minerals Processing Engineering from the Mining Institute of Krivoy Rog, Krivoy Rog, Ukraine. He is a member of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) and the Ghana Institution of Engineering (GhIE). His current research interests include mineral processing and extractive metallurgy, waste management, pyrolysis-gasification of wastes and biomass to produce valuable products, including activated carbon for the gold and oil industries.

Ohenewaa Kakra Dankwa

Ohenewaa Kakra Dankwa is a Senior Lecturer at the Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department of the University of Mines and Technology (UMaT). She holds a BSc in Geomatic Engineering from the University of Mines and Technology (UMaT), Ghana. She obtained her MSc in Petroleum Engineering from the African University of Science and Technology (AUST) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Port Harcourt. Her research interests include productivity enhancement with matrix acidizing fluids, oilfields scales, environmental management, health, and safety.

Emmanuel Atta Mends

E. A Mends holds a BSc degree in Minerals Engineering from the University of Mines and Technology (UMaT), Tarkwa, Ghana. He is currently a Teaching and Research Assistant at the Minerals Engineering Department of UMaT. He is an Associate member of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM) and a member of the Accra Mining Network (AMN). His current research interests include precious metal beneficiation, waste and water quality management, pyrolysis-gasification of wastes and biomass to produce valuable products, including activated carbon for gold adsorption.

Published
2021-12-30