Production of Metallic Iron from the Pudo Magnetite Ore using End-of-Life Rubber Tyre as Reductant

The Role of an Underlying Ankerite Ore as a Fluxing Agent on Productivity

  • James Ransford Dankwah
  • Pramod Koshy
  • James Bradford Dankwah


This research work investigated the nature of a nonmagnetic ore from Pudo and its fluxing effect on the extent of reduction of the Pudo titaniferous magnetite ore using pulverised samples of charred carbonaceous materials generated from end-of-life vehicle tyres (ELT) as reductants. Reduction studies were conducted on composite pellets of the Pudo titaniferous magnetite iron ore containing fixed amounts of charred ELT and varying amounts (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) of the nonmagnetic fluxing material in a domestic microwave oven and the extent of reduction was calculated after microwave irradiation for 40 minutes. Analyses by XRF, SEM/EDS and XRD of the nonmagnetic ore revealed an Ankerite type of ore of the form Ca0.95Fe0.95Mn0.1(CO3)2. From the microwave reduction studies it was observed that premium grade metallic iron could be produced from appropriate blends of the Pudo iron ores using ELT as reductant, with a measured extent of reduction up to 103.8%. Further, the extent of reduction was observed to increase with an increase in the amount of the nonmagnetic fluxing material (Ankerite) that was added as fluxing agent.