Performance Evaluation of Local Cassava Starch Flour as a Secondary Viscosifier and Fluid Loss Agent in Water Based Drilling Mud
Keywords:Bentonite, Drilling fluid, Fluid loss, Local cassava starch, Rheological properties, Water Based Mud (WBM), Viscosifier.
AbstractThe success of any rotary drilling process depends on the type of drilling fluid (drilling mud) selected to achieve a particular task. The main function of drilling mud is to remove cuttings during drilling process. Viscosity is by far, one of the most needed property of drilling fluid. The viscosity property of the mud helps in well cleaning and also aid in the suspension of drilling cuttings when fluid circulation is put on hold. It is important to monitor continuously and adjust the viscosity of the drilling fluid. Series of investigations have been carried out to discover less expensive and high performance viscosifiers. Cassava starch flour with bentonite in controlling viscosity and fluid loss in water-based mud (WBM) was investigated in this study. Various mud samples were formulated consisting of different masses of cassava starch flour (2 g, 4 g, 6 g and 8 g) and an additional one being the control (without cassava starch flour). Fluid loss and rheological tests were carried out to determine plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength, etc. Results from this investigation showed that, high amount of cassava starch flour in WBM increased the viscosity of the mud due to its swelling ability. However, 10 minutes gel strength for 6 g and 8 g of cassava starch flour at temperature of 80 â„ƒ deviated from API standard. Cassava starch flour concentration of 2 g recorded a filter cake of 2 mm whiles that of 4 g, 6 g, and 8 g gave 3 mm thickness. Also, introduction of cassava starch flour into the mud samples from concentrations of 2 g to 8 g reduced the fluid loss by 8 %. Based on the analyses, cassava starch flour has the potential to improve viscosity and also control fluid loss in water based drilling mud.
Ademiluyi, T., Joel, O. F. and Amuda, A. K. (2011), â€œInvestigation into Local Polymer (Cassava Starch) as a Substitute for Imported Sample in Viscosity and Fluid Loss control of Water based Drilling Mudsâ€™, APRN Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 43 - 48.
Amani, M. (2012), â€œThe Rheological Properties of Oil-Based Mud Under High Pressure and High Temperature Conditionsâ€, Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 21-30.
Annis, M. R. and Smith, M. V. (1974), â€œDrilling Fluid Technologyâ€, Exxon Company, USA, 366pp.
Anon (2017), â€œCassava Production in Ghanaâ€, www.adomonline.com/ghana-news,â€œghana-can-produce-30-million-metric-tons-Cassava. Accessed; March 7, 2018.
Anon (2012), â€œAPI Specification 13Aâ€, American Petroleum Institute, 18th Edition, USA, pp. 11-12.
Anon (1998), Drilling Fluid Manual, Palmer Publishers, Los Angeles, California, 96pp.
Ashikwei, D. A. and Marfo, S. A. (2016), â€œEvaluation of the Suitability of Corn Cob Cellulose as a Viscosity Modifier in Water Based Drilling Fluidâ€, 4th UMaT Biennial International Mining and Mineral Conference, pp. MP 66 - 70.
Harry, T. F., Joel, O. F., Ademiluyi, F. T. and Oduola, K. (2016), â€œPerformance Evaluation of Local Cassava Starches with Imported Starch for Drilling Fluidâ€, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), Vol. 5, pp. 111 â€“ 120.
Igbani, S., Peletiri, S. P. and Egba, S. U. (2015), â€œA Study on the Individual Impact of Cassava Starch and Hydroxyl Propyl-Modified Starch on Mud Densityâ€, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), Vol. 29, No.4, pp. 1 - 5.
Neff, J. M., (2005), â€œComposition, Environmental Fates and Biological Effects of Water Based Drilling Muds and Cuttings Discharged to the Marine Environment: A Synthesis and Annotated Bibliographyâ€, Petroleum Environmental Research Forum and American Petroleum Institute, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 73 â€“ 95.
Nyande, K. (2017), â€œA Comparative Analysis of Local Cocoyam (Colocasia Esculanta) and Yam (Dioscorea) as Secondary Viscosifiers and Fluid Loss agent in water based mudsâ€, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, 31pp.
Olatunde, A. O., Usman, M. A., Olafadehan O. A., Adeosun, T. A. and Ufot, O. E. (2012), â€œImprovement of Rheological Properties of Drilling Fluid Using Locally Based Materialsâ€, Journal of Petroleum and Coal, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 65 â€“ 75.
Okumo, I. and Isehunwa, S. O. (2007), â€œPrediction of the Viscosity of Water Base Mud Treated with Cassava Starch and Potash at Varying Temperature Using Factorial Designâ€, 31st Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Abuja, Nigeria, pp. 1 - 9.
Ossai, J. O. (2015), â€œThe Use of Cocoyam (Colocasia Esculanta) as a Secondary Viscosifier and a Fluid Loss Agent in Water Based Mudâ€, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, 36pp.
Samavati, T., Adullah, N., Nowtarki, K. T., Husain, S. A., Biak, D. R. A. and Mohammed, M. K. (2014), â€œThe Application and Rheological Behaviour of Igebu Garri (Cassava Derivative) as a Fluid Loss Inhibitor in Water Based Mud in Formationâ€, International Journal of Scientific Research in chemical Engineering (IJSRCE), Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 56 - 65.
Samavati, T. and Adullah, N. (2016), â€œThe Experimental Assessment and Study of Ubi Kayu Starch as Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water Based Drilling Fluidsâ€, International Journal of Scientific Research in chemical Engineering (IJSRCE), Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 1 â€“ 6.
Sarah, A. A. and Isehunwa, S. O. (2015); â€œTemperature and Time-Dependent Behaviour of a Water Base Mud Treated with Maize (Zea mays) and Cassava (Manihot esculanta) Starchesâ€, Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 7, pp. 591-597.
Sifferman, R. T., Muijs, H. M., Fanta, G. F., Felker, F. C. and Erhan, S. M. (2003), â€œStarch-Lubricant Compositions For Improved Lubricity and Fluid Loss in Water-Based Drilling Mudsâ€, International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, 5-7 February, Houston, Texas, pp. 1-5.
Udoh, F. D. and Okon, A. N. (2012), â€œFormulation of Water-Based Drilling Fluids Using Local Materialsâ€, Global Science Publications, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 167 - 174.
Winson, S. S. L. (2012), â€œDevelopment of Drilling Fluid System Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) for High Temperature-High Pressure Applicationâ€, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Malaysia, Pahang, pp. 6 - 15.
Copyright Â© 2021 University of Mines and Technology (UMaT), Tarkwa. Ghana