Performance Evaluation of Local Cassava Starch Flour as a Secondary Viscosifier and Fluid Loss Agent in Water Based Drilling Mud
AbstractThe success of any rotary drilling process depends on the type of drilling fluid (drilling mud) selected to achieve a particular task. The main function of drilling mud is to remove cuttings during drilling process. Viscosity is by far, one of the most needed property of drilling fluid. The viscosity property of the mud helps in well cleaning and also aid in the suspension of drilling cuttings when fluid circulation is put on hold. It is important to monitor continuously and adjust the viscosity of the drilling fluid. Series of investigations have been carried out to discover less expensive and high performance viscosifiers. Cassava starch flour with bentonite in controlling viscosity and fluid loss in water-based mud (WBM) was investigated in this study. Various mud samples were formulated consisting of different masses of cassava starch flour (2 g, 4 g, 6 g and 8 g) and an additional one being the control (without cassava starch flour). Fluid loss and rheological tests were carried out to determine plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength, etc. Results from this investigation showed that, high amount of cassava starch flour in WBM increased the viscosity of the mud due to its swelling ability. However, 10 minutes gel strength for 6 g and 8 g of cassava starch flour at temperature of 80 ℃ deviated from API standard. Cassava starch flour concentration of 2 g recorded a filter cake of 2 mm whiles that of 4 g, 6 g, and 8 g gave 3 mm thickness. Also, introduction of cassava starch flour into the mud samples from concentrations of 2 g to 8 g reduced the fluid loss by 8 %. Based on the analyses, cassava starch flour has the potential to improve viscosity and also control fluid loss in water based drilling mud.
Ademiluyi, T., Joel, O. F. and Amuda, A. K. (2011), “Investigation into Local Polymer (Cassava Starch) as a Substitute for Imported Sample in Viscosity and Fluid Loss control of Water based Drilling Muds’, APRN Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 43 - 48.
Amani, M. (2012), “The Rheological Properties of Oil-Based Mud Under High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions”, Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 21-30.
Annis, M. R. and Smith, M. V. (1974), “Drilling Fluid Technology”, Exxon Company, USA, 366pp.
Anon (2017), “Cassava Production in Ghana”, www.adomonline.com/ghana-news,“ghana-can-produce-30-million-metric-tons-Cassava. Accessed; March 7, 2018.
Anon (2012), “API Specification 13A”, American Petroleum Institute, 18th Edition, USA, pp. 11-12.
Anon (1998), Drilling Fluid Manual, Palmer Publishers, Los Angeles, California, 96pp.
Ashikwei, D. A. and Marfo, S. A. (2016), “Evaluation of the Suitability of Corn Cob Cellulose as a Viscosity Modifier in Water Based Drilling Fluid”, 4th UMaT Biennial International Mining and Mineral Conference, pp. MP 66 - 70.
Harry, T. F., Joel, O. F., Ademiluyi, F. T. and Oduola, K. (2016), “Performance Evaluation of Local Cassava Starches with Imported Starch for Drilling Fluid”, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), Vol. 5, pp. 111 – 120.
Igbani, S., Peletiri, S. P. and Egba, S. U. (2015), “A Study on the Individual Impact of Cassava Starch and Hydroxyl Propyl-Modified Starch on Mud Density”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), Vol. 29, No.4, pp. 1 - 5.
Neff, J. M., (2005), “Composition, Environmental Fates and Biological Effects of Water Based Drilling Muds and Cuttings Discharged to the Marine Environment: A Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography”, Petroleum Environmental Research Forum and American Petroleum Institute, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 73 – 95.
Nyande, K. (2017), “A Comparative Analysis of Local Cocoyam (Colocasia Esculanta) and Yam (Dioscorea) as Secondary Viscosifiers and Fluid Loss agent in water based muds”, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, 31pp.
Olatunde, A. O., Usman, M. A., Olafadehan O. A., Adeosun, T. A. and Ufot, O. E. (2012), “Improvement of Rheological Properties of Drilling Fluid Using Locally Based Materials”, Journal of Petroleum and Coal, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 65 – 75.
Okumo, I. and Isehunwa, S. O. (2007), “Prediction of the Viscosity of Water Base Mud Treated with Cassava Starch and Potash at Varying Temperature Using Factorial Design”, 31st Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Abuja, Nigeria, pp. 1 - 9.
Ossai, J. O. (2015), “The Use of Cocoyam (Colocasia Esculanta) as a Secondary Viscosifier and a Fluid Loss Agent in Water Based Mud”, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, 36pp.
Samavati, T., Adullah, N., Nowtarki, K. T., Husain, S. A., Biak, D. R. A. and Mohammed, M. K. (2014), “The Application and Rheological Behaviour of Igebu Garri (Cassava Derivative) as a Fluid Loss Inhibitor in Water Based Mud in Formation”, International Journal of Scientific Research in chemical Engineering (IJSRCE), Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 56 - 65.
Samavati, T. and Adullah, N. (2016), “The Experimental Assessment and Study of Ubi Kayu Starch as Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water Based Drilling Fluids”, International Journal of Scientific Research in chemical Engineering (IJSRCE), Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 1 – 6.
Sarah, A. A. and Isehunwa, S. O. (2015); “Temperature and Time-Dependent Behaviour of a Water Base Mud Treated with Maize (Zea mays) and Cassava (Manihot esculanta) Starches”, Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 7, pp. 591-597.
Sifferman, R. T., Muijs, H. M., Fanta, G. F., Felker, F. C. and Erhan, S. M. (2003), “Starch-Lubricant Compositions For Improved Lubricity and Fluid Loss in Water-Based Drilling Muds”, International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, 5-7 February, Houston, Texas, pp. 1-5.
Udoh, F. D. and Okon, A. N. (2012), “Formulation of Water-Based Drilling Fluids Using Local Materials”, Global Science Publications, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 167 - 174.
Winson, S. S. L. (2012), “Development of Drilling Fluid System Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) for High Temperature-High Pressure Application”, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Malaysia, Pahang, pp. 6 - 15.