Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana


  • Jerry Samuel Kuma University of Mines and Technology, (UMaT) Tarkwa


Sachet water quality, Protozoan organisms, Faecal coliforms


Cholera outbreak in some cities and towns in Ghana in early 2011 necessitated a sachet water quality study in Tarkwa to determine their wholesomeness. The study was conducted in four phases in August 2011, December 2011, August 2012 and December, 2013. Most of the physico-chemical parameters analysed were within the recommended WHO limits except for pH, Pb and Ni in the main. About 50% of the samples had their pH below the lower limit of 6.5 and 8% had Pb concentrations above the recommended limit of 0.01 mg/L. Protozoan organisms such as Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%), Cryptosporidium parvum (4%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (10%), and Stronglyoides Stercoralis larvae (4%) were identified in some of the water samples. Helminth eggs (6.7%), Protista (13.4%) and 6.7% unidentified insect larvae were also found in the samples. Faecal and total coliforms were found in 40% of the samples analysed. The presence of protozoan organisms and faecal coliforms in some of the sachet water render them unsafe for drinking.


Anon. (2013), Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/strongyloides/gen_info/faqs.html, Accessed: 4th July 2013

Dodoo, D. K., Quagraine, E. K., Okai-Sam, F., Kambo, D. J. and Headley, J. V. (2006), “Quality of sachet waters in the Cape Coast Municipality of Ghanaâ€. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering Vol.41 No. 3, pp. 329-342.

Kuma, J. S., Owusu, R. O. and Gawu, S. K. Y. (2010), “Evaluating the Water Supply System in Kumasi, Ghanaâ€, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.40 No.4, pp. 506-514.

Kuma, J. S. and Ewusi, A., (2009), “Water Resources Issues in Tarkwa Municipality, Southwest Ghanaâ€, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. 11, pp. 37 - 46.

Kuma, J. S. and Ashley, D. N. (2008), “Runoff Estimates into the Weija Reservoir and its Implications for Water Supply to Accra, Ghanaâ€, Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Vol. 2, No.2, pp. 33-40.

Kwakye-Nuako, G., Borketey, P. B., Mensah-Attipoe, I., Asmah, R. H. and Ayeh-Kumi, P. F. (2007), “Sachet Drinking Water in Accra: The Potential Threats of Transmission of Enteric Pathogenic Protozoan Organismsâ€, Ghana Medical Journal. Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 62–67.

Madden, E. F., Sexton, M. J., Smith, D. R., Fowler, B.A. (2002), “Leadâ€, Heavy Metals in the Environment†Marcel Dekker Inc, B. Sakar (ed), pp. 409-455.

Spellman, F. R. (2003), Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, 696 pp.

Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F. L. and Stensel, H. D. (2002), Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1848 p.






Geological Eng. Article