Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation in the Lambussie-Karni District of Ghana
The populace of the Lambussie-Karni District are mainly farmers who have resorted to the use of groundwater for irrigation during the dry season because of long drought and inadequate surface water bodies. The temporal variation of the groundwater quality for irrigation in the District was assessed using sixteen boreholes. Richard Plot indicates that groundwater in the study area is within the low salinity to low sodium hazard and medium salinity to low sodium hazard class. Wilcox Plot shows groundwater to be within excellent to good class in the catchment. Irrigation water quality index (IWQI) map was also developed to determine precisely the degree and areal extent of groundwater suitability for irrigation. ArcGIS 10.1 was used to generate thematic maps for sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), sodium percentage (Na %), HCO3-, pH and electrical conductivity. The results were compared to Food and Agricultural Organisations (FAO) standard guidelines. An IQWI map for the Lambussie- Karni District shows that groundwater is generally suitable for irrigation, about 24.57 % of the district will require crops which can tolerate high amount of salts. A percentage (39.82 %) of the catchment has groundwater, which is highly suitable for crops which are least resistant to salt.
Keywords: Groundwater Suitability; Irrigation Water Quality; SAR; IWQI Map; Lambussie-Karni District
Aghazadeh, N. and Mogaddam, A. A. (2010), “Assessment of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Uses in the Oshnavieh Area, Northwest of Iran”, Journal of Environmental Protection, 1(01), pp. 30.
Anku, Y. S., Banoeng-Yakubo, B., Asiedu, D. K. and Yidana, S. M. (2009), “Water Quality Analysis of Groundwater in Crystalline Basement Rocks, Northern Ghana”, Environmental Geology, 58(5), pp. 989-997.
Anon. (2014), “2010 Population and Housing Census, District analytical Report”, Ghana Statistical Report, Lambussie-Karni District, 89 pp.
Ayers, R. S. and Westcot, D. W. (1989). “Salinity problems”, Water quality for agriculture. FAO, Rome, Italy, 1-32.
Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W. (1985), “Water Quality for Agriculture”, Irrigation and drainage, Paper No. 29, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 174 pp.
Barcelona, M. J., Gibb.P. M., Helfrick, A.J. and Garske, E.E. (1985), Practical Guide for Ground-Water Sampling, Illinois State Water Survey, Vol. 374, Contract Report 374, 75 pp.
Dickson, K. B. and Benneh, G. (1988), A New Geography of Ghana, UK, Longman Group Limited, 170 pp.
Doneen, L. D. (1964), Notes on Water Quality in Agriculture, Department of Water Science and Engineering, University of California, Water Science and Engineering, 400 pp.
Dzigbodi-Adjimah, K. (1993), “Geology and Geochemical Patterns of the Birimian Gold Deposits, Ghana, West Africa”, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 47(1-3), pp. 305-320
Eaton, F. M. (1950), “Significance of Carbonates in Irrigation Waters”, Soil Science, 69(2), pp. 123-134, and Environment, 49, pp. 761-784.
Fipps, G. (2003), “Irrigation Water Quality Standards and Salinity Management Strategies”, Texas Farmer Collection, pp. 1-19.
Gale, I. N. and Robins, N. S. (1989), The Sampling and Monitoring of Groundwater Quality, British Geological Survey, Hydrogeology Report, (89/37).
Jasmin, I. and Mallikarjuna, P. (2015) Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation in the Araniar River Basin, South India—A Case Study Using Gis Approach. Irrig. and Drain., Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 600–608.
Kortatsi, B. K. (2004), “Hydrochemistry of Groundwater in the Mining Area of Tarkwa Prestea, Ghana”, (Unpublished) PhD. Thesis, University of Ghana, Accra, pp. 70-85.
Little, J., Kalischuk, A., Gross, D. and Sheedy, C. (2010). Assessment of water quality in Alberta’s irrigation districts. Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Alberta, Canada.
Pradhan, B. and Pirasteh, S. (2011), “Hydro-Chemical Analysis of the Ground Water of the Basaltic Catchments: Upper Bhatsai Region, Maharastra”, Open Hydrology Journal, 5, pp. 51-57.
Quist, L. G., Bannerman, R. R. and Owusu, S. (1988), “Groundwater in Rural Water Supply in Ghana”, Report of the West African Sub-Regional Workshop, Accra, Ghana, pp. 20-24.
Raghunath, H. M. (1987), Groundwater, 2nd Edition. Wiley, New Delhi, pp. 344-369.
Richards. L. M. (1954), “Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkaline Soils”, Agriculture Handbook, No. 60, US Salinity Laboratory, USDA, 160 pp.
Rokbani, M.K., Gueddari N., and Bouhlila, R. (2011): "Use of Geographical Information System and Water Quality Index to Assess Groundwater Quality in El Khairat Deep Aquifer (Enfidha, Tunisian Sahel)", Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment Vol. (2), No.2, pp. 133-144
Roudakov, V.M. (1991). Report on the geology and minerals of the north-western part of the Wa ﬁeld sheet. Ghana Geological Survey Archive, Report 50, pp. 95.
Ruthenberg. H. (1980), Farming Systems in the Tropics, 3rd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK. 424 pp.
Salifu, M., Aidoo, F., Hayford, M. S., Adomako, D. and Asare, E. (2015), “Evaluating the Suitability of Groundwater for Irrigational Purposes in Some Selected Districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana”, Applied Water Science, pp. 1-10.
Simsek, C. and Gunduz, O. (2007): "IWQ index: A GIS integrated technique to assess irrigation water quality", Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. (128), pp. 277–300
Todd D.K. (1980) Groundwater hydrology. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, pp. 10–138
Wilcox, L. V. (1948), “The Quality of Water for Irrigation Use”, US Dept. of Agricultural Technology Bulleton, 1962, Washington DC, pp. 1-40.
Wilcox, L. V. (1955), “Classification and Use of Irrigation Waters”, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, Circular, No. 969, 1047 pp.